# Modeling randomized computation

- Formal definition of probabilistic polynomial time:
\(\mathbf{BPTIME}(T(n))\) and \(\mathbf{BPP}\).
- Proof that that every function in \(\mathbf{BPP}\) can be computed by
\(poly(n)\)-sized NAND programs/circuits.
- Pseudorandom generators

“Any one who considers arithmetical methods of producing random digits is, of course, in a state of sin.”, John von Neumann, 1951.

So far we have described randomized algorithms in an informal way, assuming that an operation such as “pick a string \(x\in \{0,1\}^n\)” can be done efficiently. We have neglected to address two questions:

- How do we actually efficiently obtain random strings in the physical world?
- What is the mathematical model for randomized computations, and is it more powerful than deterministic computation?

The first question is of both practical and theoretical importance, but
for now let’s just say that there are various random physical sources.
User’s mouse movements, (non solid state) hard drive and network
latency, thermal noise, and radioactive decay, have all been used as
sources for randomness. For example, new Intel chips come with a random
number generator built
in.
One can even build mechanical coin tossing machines (see
Reference:coinfig).The output of processes such as above can be thought of as a
binary string sampled from some distribution \(\mu\) that might have
significant unpredictablity (or *entropy*) but is not necessarily
the *uniform* distribution over \(\{0,1\}^n\). Indeed, as this
paper
shows, even (real-world) coin tosses do not have exactly the
distribution of a uniformly random string. Therefore, to use the
resulting measurements for randomized algorithms, one typically
needs to apply a “distillation” or *randomness extraction* process
to the raw measurements to transform them to the uniform
distribution.

In this lecture we focus on the second point - formally modeling probabilistic computation and studying its power. Modeling randomized computation is actually quite easy. We can add the following operations to our NAND, NAND++ and NAND<< programming languages:

`var := RAND`

where `var`

is a variable. The result of applying this operation is that
`var`

is assigned a random bit in \(\{0,1\}\). (Every time the `RAND`

operation is invoked it returns a fresh independent random bit.) We call
the resulting languages RNAND, RNAND++, and RNAND<< respectively.

We can use this to define the notion of a function being computed by a
randomized \(T(n)\) time algorithm for every nice time bound
\(T:\N \rightarrow \N\), as well as the notion of a finite function being
computed by a size \(S\) randomized NAND program (or, equivalently, a
randomized circuit with \(S\) gates that correspond to either NAND or
coin-tossing). However, for simplicity we we will not define randomized
computation in full generality, but simply focus on the class of
functions that are computable by randomized algorithms *running in
polynomial time*, which by historical convention is known as
\(\mathbf{BPP}\):

Let \(F:\in \{0,1\}^*\rightarrow \{0,1\}\). We say that \(F\in \mathbf{BPP}\) if there exist constants \(a,b\in \N\) and an RNAND++ program \(P\) such that for every \(x\in \{0,1\}^*\), on input \(x\), the program \(P\) halts within at most \(a|x|^b\) steps and \[ \Pr[ P(x)= F(x)] \geq \tfrac{2}{3} \] where this probability is taken over the result of the RAND operations of \(P\).\(\mathbf{BPP}\) stands for “bounded probability polynomial time”, and is used for historical reasons.

The same polynomial-overhead simulation of NAND<< programs by
NAND++ programs we saw in Reference:NANDpp-thm extends to *randomized*
programs as well. Hence the class \(\mathbf{BPP}\) is the same regardless
of whether it is defined via RNAND++ or RNAND<< programs.

### Random coins as an “extra input”

While we presented randomized computation as adding an extra “coin
tossing” operation to our programs, we can also model this as being
given an additional extra input. That is, we can think of a randomized
algorithm \(A\) as a *deterministic* algorithm \(A'\) that takes *two
inputs* \(x\) and \(r\) where the second input \(r\) is chosen at random from
\(\{0,1\}^m\) for some \(m\in \N\). The equivalence to the Reference:BPPdef
is shown in the following theorem:

Let \(F:\{0,1\}^* \rightarrow \{0,1\}\). Then \(F\in \mathbf{BPP}\) if and only if there exists \(a,b\in \N\) and \(G:\{0,1\}^* \rightarrow \{0,1\}\) such that \(G\) is in \(\mathbf{P}\) and for every \(x\in \{0,1\}^*\), \[ \Pr_{r\sim \{0,1\}^{a|x|^b}} [ G(xr)=F(x)] \geq \tfrac{2}{3} \label{eqBPPauxiliary}\;. \]

The idea behind the proof is that we can simply replace sampling a random coin with reading a bit from the extra “random input” \(r\) and vice versa. Of course to prove this rigorously we need to work through some formal notation, and so this might be one of those proofs that is easier for you to work out on your own than to read.

We start by showing the “only if” direction. Let \(F\in \mathbf{BPP}\) and
let \(P\) be an RNAND++ program that computes \(F\) as per Reference:BPPdef,
and let \(a,b\in \N\) be such that on every input of length \(n\), the
program \(P\) halts within at most \(an^b\) steps. We will construct a
polynomial-time NAND++ program \(P'\) that computes a function \(G\)
satisfying the conditions of \eqref{eqBPPauxiliary}. As usual, we
will allow ourselves some “syntactic sugar” in constructing this
program, as it can always be eliminated with polynomial overhead as in
the proof of Reference:NANDequiv-thm. The program \(P'\) will first copy
the bits in positions \(n,n+1,n+2,\ldots,n+an^b-1\) of its input into the
variables `r_0`

, `r_1`

, \(\ldots\), `r_`

\(\expr{an^b-1}\). We will also
assume we have access to an extra index variable `j`

which we can
increase and decrease (which of course can be simulated via syntactic
sugar). The program \(P'\) will run the same operations of \(P\) except that
it will replace a line of the form `foo := RAND`

with the two lines
`foo := r_j`

amd `j := j + 1`

One can easily verify that **(1)** \(P'\) runs in polynomial time and
**(2)** if the last \(an^b\) bits of the input of \(P'\) are chosen at
random then its execution when its first \(n\) inputs are \(x\) is identical
to an execution of \(P(x)\). By **(2)** we mean that for every
\(r\in \{0,1\}^{an^b}\) corresponding to the result of the `RAND`

operations made by \(P\) on its execution on \(x\), the output of \(P\) on
input \(x\) and with random choices \(r\) is equal to \(P'(xr)\). Hence the
distribution of the output \(P(x)\) of the randomized program \(P\) on input
\(x\) is identical to the distribution of \(P'(x;r)\) when
\(r \sim \{0,1\}^{an^b}\).

For the other direction, given a function \(G\in \mathbf{P}\) satisfying
the condition \eqref{eqBPPauxiliary} and a NAND++ program \(P'\) that
computes \(G\) in polynomial time, we will construct an RNAND++ program
\(P\) that computes \(F\) in polynomial time. The idea behind the
construction of \(P\) is simple: on input a string \(x\in \{0,1\}^n\), we
will first run for \(an^b\) steps and use the `RNAND`

operation to create
variables `r_0`

, `r_1`

, \(\ldots\),`r_`

\(\expr{an^b-1}\) each containing the
result of a random coin toss. We will then execute \(P'\) on the input \(x\)
and `r_0`

,\(\ldots\),`r_`

\(\expr{an^b-1}\) (i.e., replacing every reference
to the variable `x_`

\(\expr{n+k}\) with the variable `r_`

\(\expr{k}\)). Once
again, it is clear that if \(P'\) runs in polynomial time then so will
\(P\), and for every input \(x\) and \(r\in \{0,1\}^{an^b}\), the output of
\(P\) on input \(x\) and where the coin tosses outcome is \(r\) is equal to
\(P'(xr)\).

The characterization of \(\mathbf{BPP}\) Reference:randextrainput is reminiscent of the characterization of \(\mathbf{NP}\) in Reference:NP-def, with the randomness in the case of \(\mathbf{BPP}\) playing the role of the solution in the case of \(\mathbf{NP}\) but there are important differences between the two:

- The definition of \(\mathbf{NP}\) is “one sided”: \(F(x)=1\) if
*there exists*a solution \(w\) such that \(G(xw)=1\) and \(F(x)=0\) if*for every*string \(w\) of the appropriate length, \(G(xw)=0\). In contrast, the characterization of \(\mathbf{BPP}\) is symmetric with respect to the cases \(F(x)=0\) and \(F(x)=1\). - For this reason the relation between \(\mathbf{NP}\) and \(\mathbf{BPP}\) is not immediately clear, and indeed is not known whether \(\mathbf{BPP} \subseteq \mathbf{NP}\), \(\mathbf{NP} \subseteq \mathbf{BPP}\), or these two classes are incomprable. It is however known (with a non-trivial proof) that if \(\mathbf{P}=\mathbf{NP}\) then \(\mathbf{BPP}=\mathbf{P}\) (see Reference:BPPvsNP).
- Most importantly, the definition of \(\mathbf{NP}\) is “ineffective”, since it does not yield a way of actually finding whether there exists a solution among the exponentially many possiblities. In contrast, the definition of \(\mathbf{BPP}\) gives us a way to compute the function in practice by simply choosing the second input at random.

**“Random tapes”** Reference:randextrainput motivates sometimes
considering the randomness of an RNAND++ (or RNAND<<) program as
an extra input, and so if \(A\) is a randomized algorithm that on inputs
of length \(n\) makes at most \(p(n)\) coin tosses, we will sometimes use
the notation \(A(x;r)\) (where \(x\in \{0,1\}^n\) and \(r\in \{0,1\}^{p(n)}\))
to refer to the result of executing \(x\) when the coin tosses of \(A\)
correspond to the coordinates of \(r\). This second or “auxiliary” input
is sometimes referred to as a “random tape”, with the terminology coming
from the model of randomized Turing machines.

### Amplification

The number \(2/3\) might seem arbitrary, but as we’ve seen in the previous lecture it can be amplified to our liking:

Let \(P\) be an RNAND<< program, \(F\in \{0,1\}^* \rightarrow \{0,1\}\), and \(T:\N \rightarrow \N\) be a nice time bound such that for every \(x\in \{0,1\}^*\), on input \(x\) the program \(P\) runs in at most \(T(|x|)\) steps and moreover \(\Pr[ P(x)=F(x) ] \geq \tfrac{1}{2}+\epsilon\) for some \(\epsilon>0\). Then for every \(k\), there is a program \(P'\) taking at most \(O(k\cdot T(n)/\epsilon^2)\) steps such that on input \(x\in \{0,1\}^*\), \(\Pr[ P'(x)= F(x)] > 1 - 2^{-k}\).

The proof is the same as we’ve seen before in the maximum cut and other examples. We use the Chernoff bound to argue that if we run the program \(O(k/\epsilon^2)\) times, each time using fresh and independent random coins, then the probability that the majority of the answers will not be correct will be less than \(2^{-k}\). Amplification can be thought of as a “polling” of the choices for randomness for the algorithm, see Reference:amplificationfig.

We can run \(P\) on input \(x\) for \(t=10k/\epsilon^2\) times, using fresh randomness each one, to compute outputs \(y_0,\ldots,y_{t-1}\). We output the value \(y\) that appeared the largest number of times. Let \(X_i\) be the random variable that is equal to \(1\) if \(y_i = F(x)\) and equal to \(0\) otherwise. Then all the random variables \(X_0,\ldots,X_{t-1}\) are i.i.d. and satisfy \(\E [X_i] = \Pr[ X_i = 1] \geq 1/2 + \epsilon\). Hence by the Chernoff bound (Reference:chernoffthm) the probability that the majority value is not correct (i.e., that \(\sum X_i \leq t/2\)) is at most \(2e^{-2\epsilon^2 t} < 2^{-k}\) for our choice of \(t\).

There is nothing special about NAND<< in Reference:amplificationthm. The same proof can be used to amplify randomized NAND or NAND++ programs as well.

## \(\mathbf{BPP}\) and \(\mathbf{NP}\) completeness

Since “noisy processes” abound in nature, randomized algorithms can be
realized physically, and so it is reasonable to propose \(\mathbf{BPP}\)
rather than \(\mathbf{P}\) as our mathematical model for “feasible” or
“tractable” computation. One might wonder if this makes all the previous
lectures irrelevant, and in particular does the theory of \(\mathbf{NP}\)
completeness still apply to probabilistic algorithms. Fortunately, the
answer is *Yes*:

Suppose that \(F\) is \(\mathbf{NP}\)-hard and \(F\in \mathbf{BPP}\) then \(\mathbf{NP} \subseteq \mathbf{BPP}\).

Before seeing the proof note that Reference:NPCandBPP in particular
implies that if there was a randomized polynomial time algorithm for any
\(\mathbf{NP}\)-complete problem such as \(3SAT\), \(ISET\) etc.. then there
will be such an algorithm for *every* problem in \(\mathbf{NP}\). Thus,
regardless of whether our model of computation is deterministic or
randomized algorithms, \(\mathbf{NP}\) complete problems retain their
status as the “hardest problems in \(\mathbf{NP}\)”.

The idea is to simply run the reduction as usual, and plug it into the randomized algorithm instead of a deterministic one. It would be an excellent exercise, and a way to reinforce the definitions of \(\mathbf{NP}\)-hardness and randomized algorithms, for you to work out the proof for yourself. However for the sake of completeness, we include this proof below.

Suppose that \(F\) is \(\mathbf{NP}\)-hard and \(F\in \mathbf{BPP}\). We will
now show that this implies that \(\mathbf{NP} \subseteq \mathbf{BPP}\).
Let \(G \in \mathbf{NP}\). By the definition of \(\mathbf{NP}\)-hardness, it
follows that \(G \leq_p F\), or that in other words there exists a
polynomial-time computable function \(R:\{0,1\}^* \rightarrow \{0,1\}^*\)
such that \(G(x)=F(R(x))\) for every \(x\in \{0,1\}^*\). Now if \(F\) is in
\(\mathbf{BPP}\) then there is a polynomial-time RNAND++ program \(P\) such
that \[
\Pr[ P(y)= F(y) ] \geq 2/3 \label{FinBPPeq}
\]

for *every* \(y\in \{0,1\}^*\) (where the probability is taken over the
random coin tosses of \(P\)). Hence we can get a polynomial-time RNAND++
program \(P'\) to compute \(G\) by setting \(P'(x)=P(R(x))\). By
\eqref{FinBPPeq} \(\Pr[ P'(x) = F(R(x))] \geq 2/3\) and since
\(F(R(x))=G(x)\) this implies that \(\Pr[ P'(x) = G(x)] \geq 2/3\), which
proves that \(G \in \mathbf{BPP}\).

Most of the results we’ve seen about the \(\mathbf{NP}\) hardness, including the search to decision reduction of Reference:search-dec-thm, the decision to optimization reduction of Reference:optimizationnp, and the quantifier elimination result of Reference:PH-collapse-thm, all carry over in the same way if we replace \(\mathbf{P}\) with \(\mathbf{BPP}\) as our model of efficient computation. Thus if \(\mathbf{NP} \subseteq \mathbf{BPP}\) then we’d get essentially all of the strange and wonderful consequences of \(\mathbf{P}=\mathbf{NP}\). Unsurprisingly, we cannot rule out this possiblity. In fact, unlike \(\mathbf{P}=\mathbf{EXP}\), which is ruled out by the time hierarchy theorem, we don’t even know how to rule out the possiblity that \(\mathbf{BPP}=\mathbf{EXP}\)! Thus a priori it’s possible (though seems highly unlikely) that randomness is a magical tool that allows to speed up arbitrary exponential time computation.At the time of this writing, the largest “natural” complexity class which we can’t rule out being contained in \(\mathbf{BPP}\) is the class \(\mathbf{NEXP}\), which we did not define in this course, but corresponds to non deterministic exponential time. See this paper for a discussion of this question. Nevertheless, as we discuss below, it is believed that randomization’s power is much weaker and \(\mathbf{BPP}\) lies in much more “pedestrian” territory.

## The power of randomization

A major question is whether randomization can add power to computation. Mathematically, we can phrase this as the following question: does \(\mathbf{BPP}=\mathbf{P}\)? Given what we’ve seen so far about the relations of other complexity classes such as \(\mathbf{P}\) and \(\mathbf{NP}\), or \(\mathbf{NP}\) and \(\mathbf{EXP}\), one might guess that:

- We do not know the answer to this question.
- But we suspect that \(\mathbf{BPP}\) is different than \(\mathbf{P}\).

One would be correct about the former, but wrong about the latter. As we
will see, we do in fact have reasons to believe that
\(\mathbf{BPP}=\mathbf{P}\). This can be thought of as supporting the
*extended Church Turing hypothesis* that deterministic polynomial-time
NAND++ program (or, equivalently, polynomial-time Turing machines)
capture what can be feasibly computed in the physical world.

We now survey some of the relations that are known between \(\mathbf{BPP}\) and other complexity classes we have encountered, see also Reference:BPPscenariosfig.

### Solving \(\mathbf{BPP}\) in exponential time

It is not hard to see that if \(F\) is in \(\mathbf{BPP}\) then it can be
computed in *exponential* time.

\(\mathbf{BPP} \subseteq \mathbf{EXP}\)

The proof of Reference:BPPEXP readily follows by enumerating over all the (exponentially many) choices for the random coins. We omit the formal proof, as doing it by yourself is an excellent way to get comfort with Reference:BPPdef

### Simulating randomized algorithms by circuits or straightline programs.

We have seen in Reference:non-uniform-thm that if \(F\) is in \(\mathbf{P}\), then there is a polynomial \(p:\N \rightarrow \N\) such that for every \(n\), the restriction \(F_n\) of \(F\) to inputs \(\{0,1\}^n\) is in \(SIZE(p(n))\). A priori it is not at all clear that the same holds for a function in \(\mathbf{BPP}\), but this does turn out to be the case.

For every \(F\in \mathbf{BPP}\), there exist some \(a,b\in \N\) such that for every \(n>0\), \(F_n \in SIZE(an^b)\) where \(F_n\) is the restriction of \(F\) to inputs in \(\{0,1\}^n\).

The idea behind the proof is that we can first amplify by repetition the
probability of success from \(2/3\) to \(1-0.1 \cdot 2^{-n}\). This will
allow us to show that there exists a single fixed choice of “favorable
coins” that would cause the algorithm to output the right answer on
*all* of the possible \(2^n\) inputs. We can then use the standard
“unravelling the loop” technique to transform an RNAND++ program to an
RNAND program, and “hardwire” the favorable choice of random coins to
transform the RNAND program into a plain-old deterministic NAND program.

Suppose that \(F\in \mathbf{BPP}\) and let \(P\) be a polynomial-time
RNAND++ program that computes \(F\) as per Reference:BPPdef. Using
Reference:amplificationthm we can *amplify* the success probability of
\(P\) to obtain an RNAND++ program \(P'\) that is at most a factor of \(O(n)\)
slower (and hence still polynomial time) such that for every
\(x\in \{0,1\}^n\) \[
\Pr_{r \sim \{0,1\}^m}[ P'(x;r)=F(x)] \geq 1 - 0.1\cdot 2^{-n} \;, \label{ampeq}
\] where \(m\) is the number of coin tosses that \(P'\) uses on inputs of
length \(n\), and we use the notation \(P'(x;r)\) to denote the execution of
\(P'\) on input \(x\) and when the result of the coin tosses corresponds to
the string \(r\).

For every \(x\in \{0,1\}^n\), define the “bad” event \(B_x\) to hold if
\(P'(x) \neq F(x)\), where the sample space for this event consists of the
coins of \(P'\). Then by \eqref{ampeq},
\(\Pr[B_x] \leq 0.1\cdot 2^{-n}\) for every \(x \in \{0,1\}^n\). Since there
are \(2^n\) many such \(x\)’s, by the union bound we see that the
probability that the *union* of the events \(\{ B_x \}_{x\in \{0,1\}^n}\)
is at most \(0.1\). This means that if we choose \(r \sim \{0,1\}^m\), then
with probability at least \(0.9\) it will be the case that for *every*
\(x\in \{0,1\}^n\), \(F(x)=P'(x;r)\). (Indeed, otherwise the event \(B_x\)
would hold for some \(x\).) In particular, because of the mere fact that
the the probability of \(\cup_{x \in \{0,1\}^n} B_x\) is smaller than \(1\),
this means that *there exists* a particular \(r^* \in \{0,1\}^m\) such
that

\[P'(x;r^*)=F(x) \label{hardwirecorrecteq}
\] for every \(x\in \{0,1\}^n\). Now let us use the standard “unravelling
the loop” the technique and transform \(P'\) into a NAND program \(Q\) of
polynomial in \(n\) size, such that \(Q(xr)=P'(x;r)\) for every
\(x\in \{0,1\}^n\) and \(r \in \{0,1\}^m\). Then by “hardwiring” the values
\(r^*_0,\ldots,r^*_{m-1}\) in place of the last \(m\) inputs of \(Q\), we
obtain a new NAND program \(Q_{r^*}\) that satisfies by
\eqref{hardwirecorrecteq} that \(Q_{r^*}(x)=F(x)\) for every
\(x\in \{0,1\}^n\). This demonstrates that \(F_n\) has a polynomial sized
NAND program, hence completing the proof of Reference:rnandthm

The proof of Reference:rnandthm actually yields more than its statement.
We can use the same “unrolling the loop” arguments we’ve used before to
show that the restriction to \(\{0,1\}^n\) of every function in
\(\mathbf{BPP}\) is also computable by a polynomial-size RNAND program
(i.e., NAND program with the `RAND`

operation), but like in the
\(\mathbf{P}\) vs \(SIZE(poly(n))\) case, there are functions outside
\(\mathbf{BPP}\) whose restrictions can be computed by polynomial-size
RNAND programs. Nevertheless the proof of Reference:rnandthm shows that
even such functions can be computed by polynomial sized NAND programs
without using the `rand`

operations. This can be phrased as saying that
\(BPSIZE(T(n)) \subseteq SIZE(O(n T(n)))\) (where \(BPSIZE\) is defined in
the natural way using RNAND progams). Reference:rnandthm can also be
phrased as saying that \(\mathbf{BPP} \subseteq \mathbf{P_{/poly}}\), and
the stronger result can be phrased as
\(\mathbf{BPP_{/poly}} = \mathbf{P_{/poly}}\).

## Derandomization

The proof of Reference:rnandthm can be summarized as follows: we can replace a \(poly(n)\)-time algorithm that tosses coins as it runs, with an algorithm that uses a single set of coin tosses \(r^* \in \{0,1\}^{poly(n)}\) which will be good enough for all inputs of size \(n\). Another way to say it is that for the purposes of computing functions, we do not need “online” access to random coins and can generate a set of coins “offline” ahead of time, before we see the actual input.

But this does not really help us with answering the question of whether
\(\mathbf{BPP}\) equals \(\mathbf{P}\), since we still need to find a way to
generate these “offline” coins in the first place. To derandomize an
RNAND++ program we will need to come up with a *single* deterministic
algorithm that will work for *all input lengths*. That is, unlike in the
case of RNAND programs, we cannot choose for every input length \(n\) some
string \(r^* \in \{0,1\}^{poly(n)}\) to use as our random coins.

Can we derandomize randomized algorithms, or does randomness add an inherent extra power for computation? This is a fundamentally interesting question but is also of practical significance. Ever since people started to use randomized algorithms during the Manhattan project, they have been trying to remove the need for randomness and replace it with numbers that are selected through some deterministic process. Throughout the years this approach has often been used successfully, though there have been a number of failures as well.One amusing anecdote is a recent case where scammers managed to predict the imperfect “pseudorandom generator” used by slot machines to cheat casinos. Unfortunately we don’t know the details of how they did it, since the case was sealed.

A common approach people used over the years was to replace the random
coins of the algorithm by a “randomish looking” string that they
generated through some arithmetic progress. For example, one can use the
digits of \(\pi\) for the random tape. Using these type of methods
corresponds to what von Neumann referred to as a “state of sin”. (Though
this is a sin that he himself frequently committed, as generating true
randomness in sufficient quantity was and still is often too expensive.)
The reason that this is considered a “sin” is that such a procedure will
not work in general. For example, it is easy to modify any probabilistic
algorithm \(A\) such as the ones we have seen in the previous lecture, to
an algorithm \(A'\) that is *guaranteed to fail* if the random tape
happens to equal the digits of \(\pi\). This means that the procedure
“replace the random tape by the digits of \(\pi\)” does not yield a
*general* way to transform a probabilistic algorithm to a deterministic
one that will solve the same problem. Of course, this procedure does not
*always* fail, but we have no good way to determine when it fails and
when it succeeds. This reasoning is not specific to \(\pi\) and holds for
every deterministically produced string, whether it obtained by \(\pi\),
\(e\), the Fibonacci series, or anything else.

An algorithm that checks if its random tape is equal to \(\pi\) and then fails seems to be quite silly, but this is but the “tip of the iceberg” for a very serious issue. Time and again people have learned the hard way that one needs to be very careful about producing random bits using deterministic means. As we will see when we discuss cryptography, many spectacular security failures and break-ins were the result of using “insufficiently random” coins.

### Pseudorandom generators

So, we can’t use any *single* string to “derandomize” a probabilistic
algorithm. It turns out however, that we can use a *collection* of
strings to do so. Another way to think about it is that rather than
trying to *eliminate* the need for randomness, we start by focusing on
*reducing* the amount of randomness needed. (Though we will see that if
we reduce the randomness sufficiently, we can eventually get rid of it
altogether.)

We make the following definition:

A function \(G:\{0,1\}^\ell \rightarrow \{0,1\}^m\) is a
*\((T,\epsilon)\)-pseudorandom generator* if for every NAND program \(P\)
with \(m\) inputs and one output of at most \(T\) lines, \[
\left| \Pr_{s\sim \{0,1\}^\ell}[P(G(s))=1] - \Pr_{r \sim \{0,1\}^m}[P(r)=1] \right| < \epsilon \label{eq:prg}
\]

This is a definition that’s worth reading more than once, and spending some time to digest it. Note that it takes several parameters:

- \(T\) is the limit on the number of lines of the program \(P\) that the generator needs to “fool”. The larger \(T\) is, the stronger the generator.
- \(\epsilon\) is how close is the output of the pseudorandom generator to the true uniform distribution over \(\{0,1\}^m\). The smaller \(\epsilon\) is, the stronger the generator.
- \(\ell\) is the input length and \(m\) is the output length. If \(\ell \geq m\) then it is trivial to come up with such a generator: on input \(s\in \{0,1\}^\ell\), we can output \(s_0,\ldots,s_{m-1}\). In this case \(\Pr_{s\sim \{0,1\}^\ell}[ P(G(s))=1]\) will simply equal \(\Pr_{r\in \{0,1\}^m}[ P(r)=1]\), no matter how many lines \(P\) has. So, the smaller \(\ell\) is and the larger \(m\) is, the stronger the generator, and to get anything non-trivial, we need \(m>\ell\).

Furthermore note that although our eventual goal is to fool
probabilistic randomized algorithms that take an unbounded number of
inputs, Reference:prgdef refers to *finite* and *deterministic* NAND
programs.

We can think of a pseudorandom generator as a “randomness amplifier”. It
takes an input \(s\) of \(\ell\) bits chosen at random and expands these
\(\ell\) bits into an output \(r\) of \(m>\ell\) *pseudorandom* bits. If
\(\epsilon\) is small enough then the pseudorandom bits will “look random”
to any NAND program that is not too big. Still, there are two questions
we haven’t answered:

*What reason do we have to believe that pseudorandom generators with non-trivial parameters exist?**Even if they do exist, why would such generators be useful to derandomize randomized algorithms?*After all, Reference:prgdef does not involve RNAND++ or RNAND<<programs but deterministic NAND programs with no randomness and no loops.

We will now (partially) answer both questions.

For the first question, let us come clean and confess we do not know how
to *prove* that interesting pseudorandom generators exist. By
*interesting* we mean pseudorandom generators that satisfy that
\(\epsilon\) is some small constant (say \(\epsilon<1/3\)), \(m>\ell\), and
the function \(G\) itself can be computed in \(poly(m)\) time. Nevertheless,
Reference:prgexist (whose statement and proof is deferred to the end of
this chapter) shows that if we only drop the last condition
(polynomial-time computability), then there do in fact exist
pseudorandom generators where \(m\) is *exponentially larger* than \(\ell\).

At this point you might want to skip ahead and look at the *statement*
of Reference:prgexist. However, since its *proof* is somewhat subtle, I
recommend you defer reading it until you’ve finished reading the rest of
this lecture.

### From existence to constructivity

The fact that there *exists* a pseudorandom generator does not mean that
there is one that can be efficiently computed. However, it turns out
that we can turn complexity “on its head” and used the assumed *non
existence* of fast algorithms for problems such as 3SAT to obtain
pseudorandom generators that can then be used to transform randomized
algorithms into deterministic ones. This is known as the *Hardness vs
Randomness* paradigm. A number of results along those lines, most of
whom are ourside the scope of this course, have led researchers to
believe the following conjecture:

Optimal PRG conjecture:There is a polynomial-time computable function \(PRG:\{0,1\}^* \rightarrow \{0,1\}\) that yields anexponentially secure pseudorandom generator. Specifically, there exists a constant \(\delta >0\) such that for every \(\ell\) and \(m < 2^{\delta \ell}\), if we define \(G:\{0,1\}^\ell \rightarrow \{0,1\}^m\) as \(G(s)_i = PRG(s,i)\) for every \(s\in \{0,1\}^\ell\) and \(i \in [m]\), then \(G\) is a \((2^{\delta \ell},2^{-\delta \ell})\) pseudorandom generator.

The “optimal PRG conjecture” is worth while reading more than once. What it posits is that we can obtain \((T,\epsilon)\) pseudorandom generator \(G\) such that every output bit of \(G\) can be computed in time polynomial in the length \(\ell\) of the input, where \(T\) is exponentially large in \(\ell\) and \(\epsilon\) is exponentially small in \(\ell\). (Note that we could not hope for the entire output to be computable in \(\ell\), as just writing the output down will take too long.)

To understand why we call such a pseudorandom generator “optimal”, it is a great exercise to convince yourself that there exists no \((T,\epsilon)\) pseudorandom generator unless \(T\) is smaller than (say) \(2^{2\ell}\) and \(\epsilon\) is at least (say) \(2^{-2\ell}\). For the former case note that if we allow a NAND program with much more than \(2^\ell\) lines then this NAND program could “hardwire” inside it all the outputs of \(G\) on all its \(2^\ell\) inputs, and use that to distinguish between a string of the form \(G(s)\) and a uniformly chosen string in \(\{0,1\}^m\). For the latter case note that by trying to “guess” the input \(s\), we can achieve a \(2^{-\ell}\) advantage in distinguishing a pseudorandom and uniform input. But working out these details is a highly recommended exercise.

We emphasize again that the optimal PRG conjecture is, as its name
implies, a *conjecture*, and we still do not know how to *prove* it. In
particular, it is stronger than the conjecture that
\(\mathbf{P} \neq \mathbf{NP}\). But we do have some evidence for its
truth. There is a spectrum of different types of pseudorandom
generators, and there are weaker assumption than the optimal PRG
conjecture that suffice to prove that \(\mathbf{BPP}=\mathbf{P}\). In
particular this is known to hold under the assumption that there exists
a function \(F\in \mathbb{TIME}(2^{O(n)})\) and \(\epsilon >0\) such that
for every sufficiently large \(n\), \(F_n\) is not in
\(SIZE(2^{\epsilon n})\). The name “Optimal PRG conjecture” is non
standard. This conjecture is sometimes known in the literature as the
existence of exponentially strong pseudorandom functions.For more on the many interesting results and connections in the
study of *pseudorandomness*, see this monograph of Salil
Vadhan.

### Usefulness of pseudorandom generators

We now show that optimal pseudorandom generators are indeed very useful, by proving the following theorem:

Suppose that the optimal PRG conjecture is true. Then \(\mathbf{BPP}=\mathbf{P}\).

The optimal PRG conjecture tells us that we can achieve *exponential
expansion* of \(\ell\) truly random coins into as many as
\(2^{\delta \ell}\) “pseudorandom coins”. Looked at from the other
direction, it allows us to reduce the need for randomness by taking an
algorithm that uses \(m\) coins and converting it into an algorithm that
only uses \(O(\log m)\) coins. Now an algorithm of the latter type by can
be made fully deterministic by enumerating over all the \(2^{O(\log m)}\)
(which is polynomial in \(m\)) possiblities for its random choices. We now
proceed with the proof details.

Let \(F\in \mathbf{BPP}\) and let \(P\) be a NAND++ program and \(a,b,c,d\) constants such that for every \(x\in \{0,1\}^n\), \(P(x)\) runs in at most \(c\dot n^d\) steps and \(\Pr_{r\sim \{0,1\}^m}[ P(x;r) = F(x) ] \geq 2/3\). By “unrolling the loop” and hardwiring the input \(x\), we can obtain for every input \(x\in \{0,1\}^n\) a NAND program \(Q_x\) of at most, say, \(T=10c\dot n^d\) lines, that takes \(m\) bits of input and such that \(Q(r)=P(x;r)\).

Now suppose that \(G:\{0,1\}^\ell \rightarrow \{0,1\}\) is a \((T,0.1)\) pseudorandom generator. Then we could deterministically estimate the probability \(p(x)= \Pr_{r\sim \{0,1\}^m}[ Q_x(r) = 1 ]\) up to \(0.1\) accuracy in time \(O(T \cdot 2^\ell \cdot m \cdot cost(G))\) where \(cost(G)\) is the time that it takes to compute a single output bit of \(G\). The reason is that we know that \(\tilde{p}(x)= \Pr_{s \sim \{0,1\}^\ell}[ Q_x(G(s)) = 1]\) will give us such an estimate for \(p(x)\), and we can compute the probability \(\tilde{p}(x)\) by simply trying all \(2^\ell\) possibillites for \(s\). Now, under the optimal PRG conjecture we can set \(T = 2^{\delta \ell}\) or equivalently \(\ell = \tfrac{1}{\delta}\log T\), and our total computation time is polynomial in \(2^\ell = T^{1/\delta}\), and since \(T \leq 10c \dot n^d\), this running time will be polynomial in \(n\). This completes the proof, since we are guaranteed that \(\Pr_{r\sim \{0,1\}^m}[ Q_x(r) = F(x) ] \geq 2/3\), and hence estimating the probability \(p(x)\) to within \(0.1\) accuracy is sufficient to compute \(F(x)\).

## \(\mathbf{P}=\mathbf{NP}\) and \(\mathbf{BPP}\) vs \(\mathbf{P}\)

Two computational complexity questions that we cannot settle are:

- Is \(\mathbf{P}=\mathbf{NP}\)? Where we believe the answer is
*negative*. - If \(\mathbf{BPP}=\mathbf{P}\)? Where we believe the answer is
*positive*.

However we can say that the “conventional wisdom” is correct on at least one of these questions. Namely, if we’re wrong on the first count, then we’ll be right on the second one:

If \(\mathbf{P}=\mathbf{NP}\) then \(\mathbf{BPP}=\mathbf{P}\).

The construction follows the “quantifier elimination” idea which we have seen in Reference:PH-collapse-thm. We will show that for every \(F \in \mathbf{BPP}\), we can reduce the question of some input \(x\) satisfies \(F(x)=1\) to the question of whether a formula of the form \(\exists_{u\in \{0,1\}^m} \forall_{v \in \{0,1\}^k} P(x,y)\) is true where \(m,k\) are polynomial in the length of \(x\) and \(P\) is polynomial-time computable. By Reference:PH-collapse-thm, if \(\mathbf{P}=\mathbf{NP}\) then we can decide in polynomial time whether such a formula is true or false.

TO BE COMPLETED

## Non-constructive existence of pseudorandom generators

We now show that, if we don’t insist on *constructivity* of pseudorandom
generators, then we can show that there exists pseudorandom generators
with output that *exponentially larger* in the input length.

There is some absolute constant \(C\) such that for every \(\epsilon,T\), if \(\ell > C (\log T + \log (1/\epsilon))\) and \(m \leq T\), then there is an \((T,\epsilon)\) pseudorandom generator \(G: \{0,1\}^\ell \rightarrow \{0,1\}^m\).

The proof uses an extremely useful technique known as the “probabilistic
method” which is not too hard mathematically but can be confusing at
first.There is a whole (highly recommended) book by Alon and
Spencer
devoted to this method. The idea is to give a “non constructive” proof of existence
of the pseudorandom generator \(G\) by showing that if \(G\) was chosen at
random, then the probability that it would be a valid \((T,\epsilon)\)
pseudorandom generator is positive. In particular this means that there
*exists* a single \(G\) that is a valid \((T,\epsilon)\) pseudorandom
generator. The probabilistic method is just a *proof technique* to
demonstrate the existence of such a function. Ultimately, our goal is to
show the existence of a *deterministic* function \(G\) that satisfies

The above discussion might be rather abstract at this point, but would become clearer after seeing the proof.

Let \(\epsilon,T,\ell,m\) be as in the lemma’s statement. We need to show that there exists a function \(G:\{0,1\}^\ell \rightarrow \{0,1\}^m\) that “fools” every \(T\) line program \(P\) in the sense of \eqref{eq:prg}. We will show that this follows from the following claim:

**Claim I:** For every fixed NAND program \(P\), if we pick
\(G:\{0,1\}^\ell \rightarrow \{0,1\}^m\) *at random* then the probability
that \eqref{eq:prg} is violated is at most \(2^{-T^2}\).

Before proving Claim I, let us see why it implies Reference:prgexist. We can identify a function \(G:\{0,1\}^\ell \rightarrow \{0,1\}^m\) with its “truth table” or simply the list of evaluations on all its possible \(2^\ell\) inputs. Since each output is an \(m\) bit string, we can also think of \(G\) as a string in \(\{0,1\}^{m\cdot 2^\ell}\). We define \(\mathcal{G}^m_\ell\) to be the set of all functions from \(\{0,1\}^\ell\) to \(\{0,1\}^\ell\). As discussed above we can identify \(\mathcal{F}_\ell^m\) with \(\{0,1\}^{m\cdot 2^\ell}\) and choosing a random function \(G \sim \mathcal{F}_\ell^m\) corresponds to choosing a random \(m\cdot 2^\ell\)-long bit string.

For every NAND program \(P\) let \(B_P\) be the event that, if we choose \(G\) at random from \(\mathcal{F}_\ell^m\) then \eqref{eq:prg} is violated with respect to the program \(P\). It is important to understand what is the sample space that the event \(B_P\) is defined over, namely this event depends on the choice of \(G\) and so \(B_P\) is a subset of \(\mathcal{F}_\ell^m\). An equivalent way to define the event \(B_P\) is that it is the subset of all functions mapping \(\{0,1\}^\ell\) to \(\{0,1\}^m\) that violate \eqref{eq:prg}, or in other words: \[ B_P = \left\{ G \in \mathcal{F}_\ell^m \; \big| \; \left| \tfrac{1}{2^\ell}\sum_{s\in \{0,1\}^\ell} P(G(s)) - \tfrac{1}{2^m}\sum_{r \in \{0,1\}^m}P(r) \right| > \epsilon \right\} \;\;. \label{eq:eventdefine} \] (We’ve replaced here the probability statements in \eqref{eq:prg} with the equivalent sums so as to reduce confusion as to what is the sample space that \(B_P\) is defined over.)

To understand this proof it is crucial that you pause here and see how
the definition of \(B_P\) above corresponds to \eqref{eq:eventdefine}.
This may well take re-reading the above text once or twice, but it is a
good exercise at parsing probabilistic statements and learning how to
identify the *sample space* that these statements correspond to.

Now, we’ve shown in Reference:program-count that up to renaming
variables (which makes no difference to program’s functionality) there
are \(2^{O(T\log T)}\) NAND programs of at most \(T\) lines. Since
\(T\log T < T^2\) for sufficiently large \(T\), this means that if the Claim
I is true, then by the union bound it holds that the probability of the
union of \(B_P\) over *all* NAND programs of at most \(T\) lines is at most
\(2^{O(T\log T)}2^{-T^2} < 0.1\) for sufficiently large \(T\). What is
important for us about the number \(0.1\) is that it is smaller than \(1\).
In particular this means that there *exists* a single
\(G^* \in \mathcal{F}_\ell^m\) such that \(G^*\) *does not* violate
\eqref{eq:prg} with respect to any NAND program of at most \(T\)
lines, but that precisely means that \(G^*\) is a \((T,\epsilon)\)
pseudorandom generator.

Hence conclude the proof of Reference:prgexist, it suffices to prove Claim I. Choosing a random \(G: \{0,1\}^\ell \rightarrow \{0,1\}^m\) amounts to choosing \(L=2^\ell\) random strings \(y_0,\ldots,y_{L-1} \in \{0,1\}^m\) and letting \(G(x)=y_x\) (identifying \(\{0,1\}^\ell\) and \([L]\) via the binary representation). Hence the claim amounts to showing that for every fixed function \(P:\{0,1\}^m \rightarrow \{0,1\}\), if \(L > 2^{C (\log T + \log \epsilon)}\) (which by setting \(C>4\), we can ensure is larger than \(10 T^2/\epsilon^2\)) then the probability that \[ \left| \tfrac{1}{L}\sum_{i=0}^{L-1} P(y_s) - \Pr_{s \sim \{0,1\}^m}[P(s)=1] \right| > \epsilon \label{eq:prgchernoff} \] is at most \(2^{-T^2}\). \eqref{{eq:prgchernoff}} follows directly from the Chernoff bound. If we let for every \(i\in [L]\) the random variable \(X_i\) denote \(P(y_i)\), then since \(y_0,\ldots,y_{L-1}\) is chosen independently at random, these are independently and identically distributed random variables with mean \(\E_{y \sim \{0,1\}^m}[P(y)]= \Pr_{y\sim \{0,1\}^m}[ P(y)=1]\) and hence the probability that they deviate from their expectation by \(\epsilon\) is at most \(2\cdot 2^{-\epsilon^2 L/2}\).

## Lecture summary

## Exercises

## Bibliographical notes

## Further explorations

Some topics related to this lecture that might be accessible to advanced students include: (to be completed)